In cases of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest, bystanders are now formally encouraged to bypass full cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), in favor of continuous chest compressions. This instruction comes following a March 2008 scientific advisory published in the journal Circulation. Given that many bystanders are hesitant to intervene in these situations, citing fear that they will do more harm than good, wariness of infection risk, or other personal considerations, how can medical professionals motivate bystander participation? Dr. Michael Sayre, associate professor of emergency medicine at the Ohio State University College of Medicine and lead author of this advisory, considers our best strategies for increasing bystander participation, in accordance with the newest CPR guidelines. Dr. Mark Nolan Hill hosts.